An IRS offer in compromise (OIC) is an agreement between a taxpayer and the Internal Revenue Service that settles a taxpayer's tax liabilities for less than the full amount owed. Taxpayers who can fully pay the liabilities through an installment agreement or other means, won't qualify for an OIC in most cases. For information concerning tax payment options including installment agreements. To qualify for an OIC, the taxpayer must have filed all tax returns, made all required estimated tax payments for the current year, and made all required federal tax deposits for the current quarter if the taxpayer is a business owner with employees. In most cases, the IRS won't accept an OIC unless the amount offered by a taxpayer is equal to or greater than the reasonable collection potential (RCP). The RCP is how the IRS measures the taxpayer's ability to pay. The RCP includes the value that can be realized from the taxpayer's assets, such as real property, automobiles, bank accounts, and other property. In addition to property, the RCP also includes anticipated future income less certain amounts allowed for basic living expenses. Submission of an application is no guarantee of approval and subject to IRS review and consideration.
The IRS may accept an OIC based on three grounds:
In general, a taxpayer must submit a $205 application fee with the Form 656. Don't combine this fee with any other tax payments. However, there are two exceptions to this requirement:
Lump Sum Cash Offer - Taxpayers may choose to pay the offer amount in a lump sum or in installment payments. A "lump sum cash offer" is defined as an offer payable in 5 or fewer installments within 5 or fewer months after the offer is accepted. If a taxpayer submits a lump sum cash offer, the taxpayer must include with the Form 656 a nonrefundable payment equal to 20 percent of the offer amount. This payment is required in addition to the $186 application fee. The 20 percent payment is nonrefundable, meaning it won't be returned to the taxpayer even if the offer is rejected or returned to the taxpayer without acceptance. Instead, the 20 percent payment will be applied to the taxpayer's tax liability. The taxpayer has a right to specify the particular tax liability to which the IRS will apply the 20 percent payment.Periodic Payment Offer - An offer is called a "periodic payment offer" under the tax law if it's payable in 6 or more monthly installments and within 24 months after the offer is accepted. When submitting a periodic payment offer, the taxpayer must include the first proposed installment payment along with the Form 656. This payment is required in addition to the $186 application fee. This amount is nonrefundable, just like the 20 percent payment required for a lump sum cash offer. Also, while the IRS is evaluating a periodic payment offer, the taxpayer must continue to make the installment payments provided for under the terms of the offer. These amounts are also nonrefundable. These amounts are applied to the tax liabilities and the taxpayer has a right to specify the particular tax liabilities to which the periodic payments will be applied.Upon acceptance of an OIC, the taxpayer may no longer designate offer payments to any tax liability specifically covered in the offer agreement.
If the IRS accepts the taxpayer's offer, the IRS expects that the taxpayer will have no further delinquencies and will fully comply with the tax laws. If the taxpayer doesn't abide by all the terms and conditions of the OIC, the IRS may determine that the OIC is in default. For doubt as to collectibility and effective tax administration OICs, the terms and conditions include a requirement that the taxpayer timely file all tax returns and timely pay all taxes for 5 years from the date of acceptance of the OIC. When an OIC is declared to be in default, the agreement is no longer in effect and the IRS may then collect the amounts originally owed (less payments made), plus interest and penalties. Additionally, any refunds due within the calendar year in which the offer is accepted will be applied to the tax debt.
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